Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems. It is a biology-based interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on complex interactions within biological systems, using a holistic to biological research. One of the aims of systems biology is to model and discover emergent properties of cells, tissues and organisms functioning as a system whose theoretical description is only possible using techniques of systems biology.
Systems Biology involves bringing together a multidisciplinary group of scholars and scientists, from biologists, mathematicians and engineers, to computer scientists and physicists in an interactive and collaborative environment. There has been a vast increase since year 2000 in the number of publications, new articles, web pages, journals and academic organizations devoted to systems biology.
The plant biology major focuses on fundamental aspects of how plants function as organisms and interact with their environment. A wide variety of scientific disciplines are integrated within the major, including physiology, cell and molecular biology, development, genetics and genomics. Research with plants has strongly influenced the development of biology and has contributed to many important scientific advances. It was research with plants that led to the discovery of the rules of genetic inheritance, of the role of light in regulating the physiologic responses of higher organisms, of transposition of genetic elements, and of the protein nature of enzymes (urease). Research with a plant virus contributed to the elucidation of the structure of DNA itself and of the role of nucleic acids in the genetic material of all life forms.
Structural biology is the study of the three-dimensional structure of biological important molecules and macromolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids.That has helped researchers understand how the thousands of different molecules in each of our cells work together to keep us healthy. Structural studies have also shown how misshapen molecules make us sick, and as a result, these studies have prompted new treatments for many diseases. Structural biology can bring unique information to drug or vaccine discovery programmes and be used thereafter to correlate efficacy with the specific changes at an atomic level. It is a key foundation for modern strategies to improve health for the future.
A genome is an organism's complete set of genetic instructions. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build that organism and allow it to grow and develop. Genomic studies uncover the genetic makeup of patients, including their genetic differences and mutations. All of that information can be used to form a care plan specific to patients' individual genetic composition, rather than treating them with a one-size-fits-all approach.
Molecular Biology covers a wide scope of problems related to molecular and cell biology including structural and functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, biomedicine, molecular enzymology, molecular virology and molecular immunology, theoretical bases of biotechnology, physics and physical chemistry of proteins and nucleic acids. Sub disciplines Of Molecular Biology are Comparative Genomics, DNA Forensics, Functional Genomics, Gene Therapy, Genomics, Molecular Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, Proteomics, Structural Genomics, Toxicogenomics
Bio Informatics is the collection, classification, storage, and analysis of biochemical and biological information using computers especially as applied in molecular genetics and genomics. One of the most basic operations in bioinformatics involves searching for similarities, or homologies, between a newly sequenced pieces of DNA segments from various organisms. Bio Informatics is a very important field as it has helped the scientists to map the whole human genome computationally. The huge mass of biological data can be stored in the databases created by bioinformatics and this data can be extracted by using the biological tools. It has its applications in the medicine by creating such drugs which only target the diseased genes.
Conservation biology is the protection and management of biodiversity that uses principles and experiences from the biological sciences, from natural resource management, and from the social sciences, including economics. Conservation biology has focus on three points: 1.To investigate and describe the diversity of the living world 2.To understand the effects of human activities on species, communities, and ecosystems and 3.To develop practical interdisciplinary approaches to protecting and restoring biological diversity. The importance of conservation biology lies not only in its contribution to sustaining human life and welfare, but also in maintaining processes fundamental to the health of the biosphere.
The interdisciplinary field of environmental biology focuses on the relationships among plants, animals and their surroundings, including their responses to environmental stimuli. Environmental biology is closely linked to and often coupled with evolutionary biology, since both involve an exploration of how organisms adapt to changing conditions. Environmental biologists may specialize in a single ecosystem, such as wetlands or forests, or in the human-wildlife interface created through development, agriculture and other man-made systems. Environmental biologists often work to preserve natural landscapes and biodiversity, protect wildlife populations and reverse ecosystem degradation. Sub disciplines in environmental biology are Animal Behavior, Biodiversity Conservation, Chemical Ecology, Environmental Pollution, Population and Community Ecology, Soil Sciences, Tropical Forest Ecology, Tropical Wetland Ecology, Wildlife Ecology and Management.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the processes whereby biological information is stored, copied, repaired and decoded to create protein and other molecules within cells and tissues. Researchers in this area investigate how the genome and genes function at a molecular level. Some key areas of research include: the genetics of disease, clinical application genetic diagnosis, gene therapy, genetic engineering, bioinformatics and genomics.
Chemical biology is the study of the chemicals and chemical reactions involved in biological processes, incorporating the disciplines of bioorganic chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology and pharmacology. Chemical biology is a new field compare with bio chemistry. It only emerged about few years ago when chemists became interested in applying chemistry to studying biological systems. Initially, chemical biology was a way of making new small molecules that have biological effects and understanding how biological systems make small molecules, but the discipline has grown remarkably over a short period of time, attracting attention as a pursuit for better understanding and more efficiently utilizing biology and as a way of finding better drug targets and treatment options as well as better biomarkers and diagnostic strategies.
Stem cell biology has emerged as one of the most exciting areas of basic and biomedical research. Stem cells represent an exciting area in medicine because of their potential to regenerate and repair damaged tissue. Some current therapies, such as bone marrow transplantation, already make use of stem cells and their potential for regeneration of damaged tissues. Stem cells are defined as precursor cells that have the capacity to self-renew and to generate multiple mature cell types. Only after collecting and culturing tissues is it possible to classify cells according to this operational concept. The future of regenerative medicine depends on fully understanding the regenerative properties of stem cells.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor. These processes include natural selection, common descent, and speciation. The evolutionary biology area of concentration provides the basic core knowledge for studies in evolutionary ecology, evolutionary developmental biology, evolution of behavior, evolutionary psychology, systematics, paleobiology, molecular evolution, evolutionary genetics, philosophy of biology, and both micro- and macroevolutionary studies generally.
Personalized medicine also called precision medicine, is a medical procedure that separates patients into different groups with medical decisions, practices, interventions and products being tailored to the individual patient based on their predicted response or risk of disease. Personalized medicine is a multi-faceted approach to patient care that not only improves our ability to diagnose and treat disease, but offers the potential to detect disease at an earlier stage, when it is easier to treat effectively. The full implementation of personalized medicine encompasses: Risk Assessment, Prevention, Detection, Diagnosis, Treatment and Management.
Bio Physics is the field that applies the theories and methods of physics to understand how biological systems work. An important area of biophysical study is the detailed analysis of the structure of molecules in living systems. Biophysicists are uniquely trained in the quantitative sciences of physics, math, and chemistry and they are able tackle a wide array of topics, ranging from how nerve cells communicate, to how plant cells capture light and transform it into energy, to how changes in the DNA of healthy cells can trigger their transformation into cancer cells, to so many other biological problems.
Translational medicine is a multi-faceted discipline with a focus on translational therapeutics. In a broad sense, translational medicine bridges across the discovery, development, regulation, and utilization spectrum. It may include application of research findings from genes, proteins, cells, tissues, organs, and animals, to clinical research in patient populations, all aimed at optimizing and predicting outcomes in specific patients. Translational medical research is bolstered by quantitative, model-based and mechanistic understanding of disease biology and pharmacology. Consequently core disciplines, including clinical pharmacology, pharmacogenomics, systems pharmacology, precision medicine, as well as others play an integral role in enabling translational research and translational medicine.